Mechanisms for Cities to Manage Institutionally Led Real Estate Development
This paper addresses the role of cities in managing institutionally led real estate development. Specifically, it identifies mechanisms available to cities to influence the development activities of large institutions and guide interactions between institutions and communities. The paper is based upon case studies of three cities: Portland, Oregon; Tucson, Arizona; and Cleveland, Ohio.
The paper presents a framework in which the level of influence a city holds over institutional development is a function of both the existence and strength of regulatory and non-regulatory mechanisms. With strong regulatory mechanisms supplemented by non-regulatory mechanisms, Portland seems to exhibit the greatest level of influence over institutional development among the three cities. Although Tucson has strong non-regulatory tools, the city’s influence is limited by the lack of regulatory controls. Cleveland has some influence over institutional development, but it is diminished by the limited ability to enforce regulatory mechanisms and the lack of non-regulatory controls to compensate.