Infrastructure and Land Policies
More than 50 percent of the global population resides in urban areas where land policy and infrastructure interactions facilitate economic opportunities, affect the quality of life, and influence patterns of urban development. While infrastructure is as old as cities, technological changes and public policies on taxation and regulation produce new issues worthy of analysis, ranging from megaprojects and greenhouse gas emissions to involuntary resettlement. This volume, based on the 2012 seventh annual Land Policy Conference at the Lincoln Institute, brings together economists, social scientists, urban planners, and engineers to discuss how infrastructure issues impact low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Infrastructure drives economic and social activities. For urban areas, the challenges of balancing economic growth with infrastructure development and maintenance are reflected in debates about finance, regulation, and location and about the sustainable levels of infrastructure services. Relevant sectors include energy (electricity and natural gas); telecommunications (phone lines, mobile phone service, and Internet); transportation (airports, railways, roads, waterways, and seaports); and water supply and sanitation (piped water, irrigation, and sewage collection and treatment).
Recent research shows that inadequate infrastructure is associated with income inequality. This is likely linked to the delivery of infrastructure services to households, such as direct health benefits, improved access to education, and enhanced economic opportunities. Because so much infrastructure is energy intensive, efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other negative impacts must address services such as electric power and transport. Bringing the management of infrastructure up to levels of good practice has a large economic payoff, and performance levels vary dramatically between and within countries. A crucial unmet challenge is to convince policy makers and voters that large economic returns can result from improving infrastructure performance and maintenance.
This volume features the papers presented at the Lincoln Institute’s seventh annual Land Policy Conference in June 2012.
About the Editors
Gregory K. Ingram is president and CEO of the Lincoln Institute and cochair of the Department of International Studies.
Karin L. Brandt is the former research analyst and project administrator of interdepartmental programs at the Lincoln Institute.
Table of Contents
Preface, Gregory K. Ingram and Karin L. Brandt
Infrastructure, Land, and Development
1. Global Infrastructure: Ongoing Realities and Emerging Challenges, Gregory K. Ingram and Karin L. Brandt
2. Infrastructure and Urban Development: Evidence from Chinese Cities, Yan Song
Commentary: David Levinson
3. Mobile Telephony and Socioeconomic Dynamics in Africa, Mirjam de Bruijn
Commentary: Anthony M. Townsend
Finance, Regulation, and Taxation
4. Economic Regulation of Utility Infrastructure, Janice A. Beecher
Commentary: Timothy J. Brennan
5. The Unit Approach to the Taxation of Railroad and Public Utility Property, Gary C. Cornia, David J. Crapo, and Lawrence C. Walters
Commentary: J. Fred Giertz
6. The Location Effects of Alternative Road-Pricing Policies, Alex Anas
Commentary: Don Pickrell
The Challenges of Large Projects
7. Chicago and Its Skyway: Lessons from an Urban Megaproject, Louise Nelson Dyble
Commentary: Richard G. Little
8. Assessing the Infrastructure Impact of Mega-Events in Emerging Economies, Victor A. Matheson
Commentary: David E. Luberoff
9. Involuntary Resettlement in Infrastructure Projects: A Development Perspective, Robert Picciotto
Commentary: Dolores Koenig
Improving Sustainability and Efficiency
10. Sustainable Infrastructure for Urban Growth, Katherine Sierra
11 Understanding Urban Infrastructure-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Key Mitigation Strategies, Anu Ramaswami
Commentary: W. Ross Morrow
12. Strengthening Urban Industry: The Importance of Infrastructure and Location, Nancey Green Leigh
Commentary: Alain Bertaud
13 What Is the Value of Infrastructure Maintenance? A Survey, Felix Rioja
Commentary: Waheed Uddin
14. How and Why Does the Quality of Service Delivery Vary Across Countries?, George R. G. Clarke
Commentary: Ahmed Abdel Aziz