Topic: Assentamentos Informais

Anacláudia Rossbach sitting at a desk in front of a computer.

Lincoln Institute’s Director of Latin America and the Caribbean Anacláudia Rossbach Named Executive Director of UN-Habitat 

By Kristina McGeehan, Junho 11, 2024

The Lincoln Institute of Land Policy today announced its director of Latin America and the Caribbean, Anacláudia Rossbach, has been elected by the United Nations General Assembly as executive director of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat).  

Anacláudia Rossbach is an economist with more than 20 years of experience working on housing issues including informal settlements, land, and urban policy. In her current role, she has bolstered the Latin America and Caribbean program through efforts such as establishing partnerships with educational institutions, creating a new strategic alliance with the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO) in Ecuador, launching a new Community of Practice (CoP) model of technical assistance in Paraguay, and inaugurating the Lincoln Prize for Journalism on Urban Policy, Sustainable Development, and Climate Change.  

“I am deeply honored by this appointment and grateful for the trust placed in me by the UN member states and the UN secretary-general—I am eager to bring my experience to the global stage,” said Anacláudia Rossbach. “In these two years working for the Lincoln Institute, I significantly expanded my knowledge about land policies—ratifying my previous recognition of the centrality of land in overcoming the great challenges we face as humanity. I appreciate the opportunity I had to be ‘at home’ at Lincoln, exchanging knowledge and ideas with my colleagues and the robust network of professionals in Latin America and the Caribbean.” 

Prior to joining the Lincoln Institute, Rossbach was the regional manager for Latin America and the Caribbean at Cities Alliance. In that role, she promoted the transfer and exchange of knowledge and provided advisory services on housing and urban policies in the Global South. She was responsible for establishing the Urban Housing Practitioners Hub (UHPH), a network of experts, practitioners, and researchers working in urban development and housing. 

Previously, she worked as a senior housing specialist for the World Bank in Brazil and internationally. In that role, she served as a high-level consultant and provided technical assistance to develop and implement Brazilian housing and slum-upgrading policies, including the Growth Acceleration Program for Favelas and the housing subsidies program Minha Casa, Minha Vida (“My House, My Life”).  

Throughout her career, Rossbach has also worked on projects including designing one of the world’s most significant municipal-level slum-upgrade programs in São Paulo, Brazil, designing institutional and operational strategies to expand access to adequate housing in Peru with the Inter-American Development Bank, and leading a global program on informality as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. She holds a bachelor of science in economics and a master of science in political economy from Pontifícia Universidade Católica in Brazil. 

“Anacláudia’s impact at the Lincoln Institute over the past two years is palpable, and can be evidenced through advances in research, partnerships, and technical assistance that we have been able to bring to Latin America and the Caribbean focusing on key issues such as fiscal systems, climate change, spatial equity, and land conservation,” said George W. McCarthy, president and CEO of the Lincoln Institute. “We will miss her deeply, but are excited to support her efforts to build inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable cities and communities through this new role with UN-Habitat.” 

Rossbach succeeds Maimunah Mohd Sharif of Malaysia, executive director of UN-Habitat from January 2018 to January 2024. She will serve a four-year term, and her appointment date will be announced soon. 


Image: Courtesy of Anacláudia Rossbach

Nuevas investigaciones sobre políticas de suelo y desarrollo urbano en América Latina

Por Luis Felipe Quintanilla, Junho 11, 2024

En el marco de la reciente convocatoria de investigación sobre políticas de suelo y desarrollo urbano en América Latina, el Instituto Lincoln de Políticas de Suelo se complace en anunciar los proyectos seleccionados para recibir apoyo financiero. Estas propuestas se destacan por su potencial de generar nuevos conocimientos sobre cómo las políticas de suelo pueden contribuir a la superación de desafíos sistémicos para el desarrollo sostenible en la región, tales como la asequibilidad de la vivienda, la equidad socioespacial, el mejoramiento integral de barrios informales, la autonomía fiscal de los municipios y la adaptación al cambio climático.

Adicionalmente, los proyectos seleccionados resaltan por su alta capacidad de incidir en debates de política pública vigentes en América Latina en temáticas de interés para el Instituto, incluyendo lecciones en la implementación de instrumentos de financiación en base al valor del suelo, políticas para reducir déficits cualitativos y cuantitativos de vivienda, y condiciones propicias para la incorporación de soluciones basadas en la naturaleza para la acción climática.

A continuación, se mencionan los proyectos y equipos de trabajo que reciben una comisión del Instituto Lincoln y que resultarán en informes científicos a presentarse en abril de 2025:

  • María Mercedes Di Virgilio, Felipe Gonzalez, María Vitoria Boix, Nicolás Ferme y María Victoria Marco, todos integrantes del Centro de Implementación de Políticas Públicas para la Equidad y el Crecimiento (CIPPEC), realizarán una medición de niveles de vivienda vacante y recomendaciones de políticas públicas en las ciudades de Buenos Aires, Córdoba y Rosario, en Argentina.
  • Ernesto Lopez-Morales, Luis Inostroza, Lien Rodríguez, Nicolás Herrera y Vicente Mosso investigarán aumentos de valor de suelo generados por proyectos de infraestructura azul-verde y la provisión de servicios ecosistémicos en la región de Patagonia, Chile.
  • Aurora Echavarria y Paavo Monkkonen generarán una base de datos de tasas del impuesto predial aplicadas en más de 200 municipios de México, para evaluarlas contra niveles de progresividad y de cumplimiento en pagos, así como su relación con costos fiscales por exenciones y frecuencia de estimaciones de la base gravable.
  • Ciro Biderman y Luis Antonio Fantozzi Alvarez evaluarán variaciones en cobros de derechos de edificabilidad y sus impactos en valores de suelo y edificios en São Paulo, Brasil.
  • Pedro Abramo, Adriana Hurtado, Juan Cabrera, Denisse Brikman, María Mercedes Di Virgilio y Julia Queiroz realizarán un estudio comparativo de procesos de densificación en áreas de origen informal en cinco países—Bolivia, Perú, Colombia, Argentina y Brasil—con el objetivo de identificar modelos de política pública para gestionar los procesos actuales de crecimiento vertical informal.
  • Daniel Kozak, Demián Rotbart, Hayley Henderson, Mariana Giusti, Rodolfo Aradas y Esteban Otto Thomasz analizarán el costo-beneficio de un sistema urbano de drenaje sostenible, incluyendo su potencial como solución basada en la naturaleza y mecanismo de recuperación de plusvalías, en el municipio de General San Martín, Argentina.
  • Oscar Eduardo Pérez Moreno, Catalina Hinestroza Gallego, Jean Carlo Figueroa Santamaría y Susana Aguilar Cuartas analizarán los marcos jurídicos e institucionales de instrumentos de recuperación de plusvalías para la financiación de acciones de resiliencia climática, con enfoque en el proyecto “Paisajes de Agua” del municipio Rionegro, Colombia.
  • Ivo Gasic, Néstor Garza y Clemente Larraín realizarán una estimación de la tasa de variación general del precio del suelo de Santiago de Chile, con el objetivo de ser utilizada en investigaciones sobre estimaciones de plusvalías que genera la inversión pública en esta ciudad.
  • Fernando Mello Franco, Alexandre Fontenelle-Weber, Giselle Mendonça Abreu, Joyce Reis Ferreira da Silva, Rafael Chasles y Bárbara Frutuoso explorarán la función socioambiental de azoteas en São Paulo, Brasil, generando una tipología en base a morfologías y usos.
  • Beatriz Toribio, Gastón Gertner, y Guadalupe Dorna, compararán los efectos de obras para control de inundaciones en valores de propiedades en zonas de alto riesgo en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Para conocer más acerca de esta y otras iniciativas de investigación del Instituto Lincoln en la región, visite nuestra página principal de oportunidades para investigaciones (en inglés) y nuestro repositorio de recursos relacionados con políticas de suelo en América Latina.

 


Luis Felipe Quintanilla es analista de políticas para el Instituto Lincoln de Políticas de Suelo.

Lead image: Casas en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Credit: Gustavo Enrique Cortez via iStock/Getty Images Plus.

Colorful buildings in Iztapalapa, Mexico

Exploring Sustainable Development in Latin America

By Carina Arvizu Machado, Maio 14, 2024

Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is the most urbanized region in the developing world, with 81 percent of its population—539 million people—living in cities, according to UN-Habitat. While there are differences in urbanization patterns across the region—for example, countries in Central America are less urbanized, but experiencing one of the fastest urbanization rates in the world, while South America is already home to major cities—poverty and inequality have characterized this growth regionwide, leading to the creation of precarious settlements whose populations face multiple vulnerabilities. These settlements are the result of insufficient access to adequate housing and unjust distribution of wealth and opportunities. The resulting vulnerabilities get reinforced and magnified by external factors such as migration and climate change.

To reflect on and tackle these related challenges, the Lincoln Institute’s Program on Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and the Special Program for Urban and Regional Studies (SPURS) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) co-organized a one-day workshop in early 2024. This event was part of an emerging initiative led by the Lincoln Institute and MIT that seeks to foster a call to action and build a regional vision that addresses critical challenges and advocates for systemic change.

Rooted in the experiences of team members from both institutions who have worked on these issues in their respective countries—Lincoln Institute LAC Program Director Anaclaudia Rossbach (Brazil), SPURS fellow Agustina Rodriguez Biasone (Argentina), and SPURS fellow Carina Arvizu Machado (México)—the workshop was designed to bridge the gap between academia and practical experience. It was an opportunity, said SPURS program director Bish Sanyal, to “theorize from practice.”

The workshop explored the multifaceted challenges facing vulnerable territories in Latin America and the Caribbean. One in five individuals in the region (110 million people) live in informal settlements. These areas face conditions of poverty and social exclusion, marked by inadequate housing, poor public services, and limited access to urban infrastructure and green spaces. In addition, the region is particularly vulnerable to climate change and has experienced significant migration flows in the past decades. LAC hosts approximately 3 million migrants from other areas and about 11 million internal migrants. Drawing inspiration from four case studies, the workshop explored innovative and integrated approaches that are paving the way for sustainable development and systemic change.

The workshop brought together over 50 individuals from diverse backgrounds, spanning academia, government, nonprofit organizations, and more, with a slate of speakers that included over 20 experts from Latin America and the Caribbean. Among them were former government ministers, executive directors, and professors from institutions such as Oxfam Mexico, the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Yale University, The New School, Columbia University, and more.

The real-world cases showcased innovative approaches to addressing urban challenges. From the Neighborhood Integration program in Buenos Aires led by María Migliore (former Buenos Aires minister of Human and Housing Development), to México’s Urban Improvement Program spearheaded by Martha Peña Ordóñez (current head of the planning unit of the Secretariat of Agrarian, Land, and Urban Development, SEDATU), passing by the Utopias project for rehabilitation of public spaces in Iztapalapa, Mexico City, implemented by Raúl Basulto (current head of Urban Development of Iztapalapa), and the Manzanas del Cuidado, or care blocks, championed by Maria-Mercedes Jaramillo (former Bogotá secretary of Planning). After participating in discussions about the challenges in the region and exploring the four case studies, attendees imagined and discussed integrated strategies for effective solutions. Participants engaged in lively debates, shared best practices, and explored ways to leverage interdisciplinary approaches for positive impact.

Basketball court at Utopía Aculco, a fitness facility, cultural venue, and social services center in Iztapalapa, Mexico. Credit: Government of Mexico City.

Participants also explored the relationships among interventions in informal settlements, city planning, and the broader urban system, reimagining the relationship between nature and cities. Rethinking planning scales and alternative territorial governance, such as through elements like water supply and management, was at the forefront of the discussions, especially on the panel about climate change, moderated by Amy Cotter, director of climate strategies at the Lincoln Institute. Looking back to move forward, the panelists and participants drew inspiration from the historical constitution of cities through migration, and past interventions in informal settlements.

The resounding commitment echoed among participants was a determination to forge a more equitable and sustainable future for urban communities in Latin America and the Caribbean. As Enrique Silva, chief program officer at the Lincoln Institute, mentioned, this workshop was a great opportunity to build upon similar events in the past, such as the 2018 symposium “Slums: New Visions for an Enduring Global Phenomenon,” held at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, and consolidate a more robust community of practice. The group agreed to continue this journey together, building bridges and creating lasting impact for the vulnerable territories of the region, forging new paths toward systemic change.

Key themes for future discussion based on the reflections at the workshop include:

  1. Exploring further the links and interdependencies of informality and informal settlements with migration, climate change and inequality, and the implications and complication of political polarization in the region.
  2. Connecting interventions in informal settlements to city planning, and the broader urban system.
  3. Reimagining the relationship between nature and cities, considering and integrating indigenous communities and their concepts and practices.
  4. Rethinking the scales of planning and alternative territorialities of governances, through alternative elements such as water.
  5. Looking back to better move forward, including looking at indigenous knowledge, how migration has affected the growth and development of cities, and previous interventions around informal settlements.

This initiative was made possible thanks in part to a grant from MIT’s Office of Experiential Learning.


Carina Arvizu Machado is a 2024 SPURS fellow at MIT and former Cities Director for Mexico and Colombia at the World Resources Institute, Mexico. She is the former national deputy secretary of Urban Development and Housing for Mexico, sustainable urban mobility consultant for the Inter-American Development Bank, and chief of urban projects for Mexico City.

Lead image: Utopía Aculco, part of the Utopía series of 12 parks and public cultural and sports facilities in Mexico City’s Iztapalapa neighborhood. The name doubles as an acronym for Unidades de Transformación y Organización Para la Inclusión y la Armonía Social (Units of Transformation and Organization for Inclusion and Social Harmony). Credit: Government of Mexico City.

Orchestrating Impact: Retiring Scholars Reflect on the Lincoln Institute

February 1, 2023

By Anthony Flint, February 1, 2023

 

Having impact at a nonprofit research organization requires being both determined and nimble, according to three scholars who retired last year from the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy after decades of service.

The three scholars—geographer and urbanist Armando Carbonell, who led programs in urban planning and land conservation; Daphne Kenyon, an economist studying the property tax and municipal finance; and economist Martim Smolka, director of the organization’s Latin America program—share reflections about their work and the Lincoln Institute in a special edition of the Land Matters podcast.

Though they pursued different areas of inquiry during their time at the organization, they found common themes, like the central task of assembling and convening a network of practitioners, and continually inviting feedback to keep up to date on the challenges and emerging issues in their fields.

One such network formed in the 1980s when Boston attorney Kingsbury Browne brought together a handful of people who were establishing conservation easements to safeguard ecosystems across the United States. The value of exchanging information about tax laws and land conservation was deemed to be so great, the group ended up forming the Land Trust Alliance, which now represents nearly 1,000 land trusts with some 60 million acres in conservation.

Another area of critical importance: communicating in plain terms and being attentive to different audiences, whether the topic is climate migration or informal settlements or the way the property tax pays for essential local services including schools. The interviewees cite Lincoln Institute projects like the State-by-State Property Tax At a Glance website, the Making Sense of Place film series, and a role-playing game that leads participants through the steps of functioning land markets as successful examples of this approach.

The three scholars (bios below) also recall how they first discovered and interacted with the Lincoln Institute—all of them starting more than 30 years ago—and share their experiences putting together extensive programming over that time. They also look ahead to the daunting challenges awaiting future generations working in the nonprofit realm.

Martim O. Smolka, former senior fellow and director of the Program on Latin America and the Caribbean, is an economist. His areas of expertise include land markets and land policy, access to land by the urban poor, the structuring of property markets in Latin America and property tax systems, including the use of land value increment charges to finance urban development and infrastructure. A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania (MA/PhD), he is co-founder and former president of the Brazilian National Association for Research and Graduate Studies on Urban and Regional Planning.

Daphne A. Kenyon, PhD, is a former resident fellow in tax policy at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Her specialty is state and local public finance, with an emphasis on the property tax. She serves as the president of the National Tax Association. Kenyon’s prior positions include principal of D.A. Kenyon & Associates, a public finance consulting firm; professor and chair of the economics department at Simmons College; senior economist with the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the Urban Institute; and assistant professor at Dartmouth College. Kenyon earned her BA in economics from Michigan State University and her MA and PhD in economics from the University of Michigan. She has published numerous reports, articles, and three books. Her research has been cited in The New York Times and The Economist, among other publications. Her latest work was writing a major revision of the 2007 report The Property Tax-School Funding Dilemma with co-authors Bethany Paquin and Andrew Reschovsky.

Armando Carbonell served as head of the Lincoln Institute’s urban planning program. After attending Clark University and the Johns Hopkins University, Carbonell spent the early part of his career as an academic geographer. He went on to initiate a new planning system for Cape Cod, Massachusetts, as the founding Executive Director of the Cape Cod Commission. In 1992 he was awarded a Loeb Fellowship at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University. Carbonell later taught urban planning at Harvard and the University of Pennsylvania and served as an editor of the British journal Town Planning Review. He has consulted on master plans in Houston, Texas, and Fujian Province, China, and is the author or editor of numerous works on city and regional planning and planning for climate change, including Nature and Cities: The Ecological Imperative in Urban Design and Planning. Carbonell is a Fellow of the American Institute of Certified Planners, Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences (UK), and Lifetime Honorary Member of the Royal Town Planning Institute (UK).

You can listen to the show and subscribe to Land Matters on Apple PodcastsGoogle PodcastsSpotifyStitcher, or wherever you listen to podcasts.

And for the first time, this episode of Land Matters can also be viewed as a video on YouTube.

 


 

Anthony Flint is a senior fellow at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, host of the Land Matters podcast, and a contributing editor of Land Lines.

Image: (Left to Right): Daphne Kenyon, Martim Smolka, Armando Carbonell, and Anthony Flint.


Further Reading

Implementing Value Capture in Latin America

Seven Need-to-Know Trends for Planners in 2023

Rethinking the Property Tax-School Funding Dilemma

Pesquisa sobre Políticas de Solo e Desenvolvimento Urbano na América Latina e Caribe

Submission Deadline: January 15, 2024 at 11:59 PM

Este anúncio será aberto em 15 de Novembro de 2023 e permanecerá aberto até 15 de Janeiro de 2024. 

O Instituto Lincoln de Políticas do Solo convida à apresentação de propostas para pesquisas originais sobre políticas do solo e desenvolvimento urbano na América Latina e Caribe. O nosso objetivo é entender como as políticas do solo estão superando, ou podem superar, desafios sistêmicos para um desenvolvimento equitativo e sustentável na região, incluindo temas relacionados a habitação social e informalidade, segregação espacial, autonomia fiscal e mudança climática. Considerando a necessidade de uma abordagem holística sobre o solo e seu papel na promoção de mudanças estruturais necessárias para o enfrentamento desses desafios, procuramos lançar luz sobre os atuais debates de política públicas em toda a região vis a vis as principais áreas de interesse de pesquisa do Instituto Lincoln. Essas áreas incluem a implementação de instrumentos de financiamento baseados na gestão do solo para promover a estabilidade fiscal e apoiar políticas urbanas e de ação climática, que tenham como objetivo superar as lacunas de infraestrutura; viabilizar a regularização de assentamentos precários; reduzir o déficit habitacional; promover desenvolvimento orientado ao transporte; e implementar soluções baseadas na natureza.

As diretrizes para inscrição e envio de propostas também estão disponíveis em espanhol e inglês. 


Details

Submission Deadline
January 15, 2024 at 11:59 PM

Keywords

Adaptação, Água, Desenvolvimento Urbano, Finanças Públicas, Habitação, Inequidade, Infraestrutura, Melhoria Urbana e Regularização, Mercados Fundiários Informais, Mitigação Climática, Planejamento, Planejamento de Uso do Solo, Políticas Públicas, Recuperação de Mais-Valias, Regulação dos Mercados Fundiários, Saúde Fiscal Municipal, Tributação Imobiliária, Uso do Solo, Valor da Terra