George W. McCarthy, President and Chief Executive Officer

Dr. George "Mac" McCarthy is President and CEO of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy in Cambridge, MA. The Lincoln Institute strives to improve public dialogue and decisions about land policy through education, research, policy evaluation, and demonstration projects that integrate theory and practice. The Institute provides a nonpartisan forum for multidisciplinary perspectives on public policy concerning land use and taxation, both in the U.S. and internationally. Before joining the Lincoln Institute in 2014, Mac directed Metropolitan Opportunity at the Ford Foundation which sought to provide disadvantaged people better access to good jobs and other opportunities from advancement by supporting regional planning, and coordinated transportation and housing development to alleviate poverty and reduce its concentration in metropolitan areas in the U.S. and developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Before taking that position, Mac administered a program at Ford that focused on using homeownership to build assets for low-income families and their communities. Before joining Ford, Mac worked as a Senior Research Associate at the Center for Urban and Regional Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Mac has worked as Professor of Economics at Bard College, Resident Scholar at the Jerome Levy Economics Institute, Visiting Scholar and Member of the High Table at King's College of Cambridge University, Visiting Scholar at the University of Naples, Italy, and Research Associate at the Centre for Social Research in St. Petersburg, Russia. Mac received a BA in Economics and Mathematics at the University of Montana; an MA in Economics at Duke University; and, a Ph. D. in Economics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Armando Carbonell, Senior Fellow and Chair, Department of Planning and Urban Form

Armando Carbonell has led the urban planning program at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy since 1999. After attending Clark University and the Johns Hopkins University, Carbonell spent the early part of his career as an academic geographer. He went on to initiate a new planning system for Cape Cod, MA as the founding Executive Director of the Cape Cod Commission. In 1992 he was awarded a Loeb fellowship in the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University. Carbonell later taught urban planning at Harvard and the University of Pennsylvania and served as an editor of the British journal Town Planning Review. He has consulted on master plans in Houston, Texas and Fujian Province, China and is the author or editor of numerous works on city and regional planning and planning for climate change, including the forthcoming Lincoln book, Nature and Cities: The Ecological Imperative in Urban Planning and Design. Carbonell is a Fellow of the American Institute of Certified Planners, Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences (UK), and Lifetime Honorary Member of the Royal Town Planning Institute (UK).

Lourdes Germán, Director of International and Institute-Wide Initiatives

Lourdes Germán is Director of International & Institute-Wide Initiatives at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy where she is helping to advance the Institute’s global municipal fiscal health campaign and its work as a co-lead organization for the municipal finance policy unit of the United Nations Habitat III effort. An expert in municipal finance, Lourdes began her career as a public finance attorney representing government entities. Following that work, Lourdes co-created the national municipal finance business division at Fidelity Investments, the largest global mutual fund company, as a Vice President of Municipal Finance, and opened and managed Fidelity’s first New York office for public finance. Following Fidelity, Lourdes’ professional experiences included serving as General Counsel and Vice President of a national municipal investment management company; creating and teaching a graduate government finance course at Northeastern University and advising non-profits focused on urban economic growth. Lourdes is also the founder and director of the Civic Innovation Project, an online thought leadership platform that was awarded the 2015 State of Boston Innovation Award for its impact using technology to advance city-to-city learning with respect to the most challenging issues facing governments. Outside of work, Lourdes serves as Governor Baker’s appointed Chair of the Massachusetts State Finance and Governance Board, is a government appointee of the Mayor of Boston to the committee focused on the City’s audit and finance matters, serves on the board of Boston Women in Public Finance, and serves on the board of United Way. 

Robin Hacke, Executive Director, Center for Community Investment

Robin Hacke is executive director of the Center for Community Investment. She brings more than two decades of investment experience to the work, having served as director of capital innovation for Living Cities, as a venture capitalist and strategy consultant in the technology industry and as a public finance banker. Most recently, Robin was a senior fellow at The Kresge Foundation from 2014-16, where she researched and incubated a capital absorption practice to improve the ability of cities to attract and leverage capital for investment in public purposes and explore how philanthropy can develop strategies to advance this goal. She has served as a Visiting Scholar at the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, a consultant to major foundations and a member of the Steering Committee for the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston’s Working Cities Challenge.

Jim Holway, PhD, Director, Babbitt Center for Land and Water Policy

Jim Holway is director of the Babbitt Center for Land and Water Policy at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. He has 35 years of experience on water and natural resources management.  In November, 2016, Jim was re-elected to represent Maricopa County on the Board of the Central Arizona Water Conservation District and currently serves as the board’s vice president.  Jim previously directed the Western Lands and Communities program for the Sonoran Institute and the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.


Zhi Liu, Senior Fellow and Director, Program on The People's Republic of China

Zhi Liu, a specialist in infrastructure and its financing, is director of the China program at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy and of the Peking University – Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy in Beijing, China. Previously as an infrastructure specialist at the World Bank, he had operational experience mainly in East Asia and South Asia, where he managed investment lending projects and analytical and advisory activities in the infrastructure and urban sectors. Before joining the World Bank, he was a research associate with the Harvard Institute for International Development. He also taught city and regional planning as a faculty member at Nanjing University. He has authored and co-authored a number of academic papers and World Bank reports on topics including metropolitan infrastructure financing, low-carbon city development, sustainable urban transport, motorization, and poverty and transport. He holds a B.S. from Zhongshan University, an M.S. from Nanjing University, and a Ph.D. from Harvard University. In 2010, he served as vice chair of the Global Agenda Council for the Future of Transportation, World Economic Forum. In 2015-16, he served as a member of the Expert Committee for China’s 13th Five-Year National Social and Economic Development Plan.

Martim O. Smolka, Senior Fellow and Director, Program on Latin America and the Caribbean

Martim O. Smolka, senior fellow and director of the Program on Latin America and the Caribbean, is an economist. His areas of expertise include land markets and land policy, access to land by the urban poor, the structuring of property markets in Latin America and property tax systems, including the use of land value increment tax to finance urban development and infrastructure. A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania (MA/PhD), he is co-founder and former president of the Brazilian National Association for Research and Graduate Studies on Urban and Regional Planning.

Joan Youngman, Senior Fellow and Chair, Department of Valuation and Taxation

Joan Youngman is senior fellow and chair of the Department of Valuation and Taxation at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She is an attorney and author of numerous articles and books concerning land and building taxation and valuation. She has undertaken international research and educational work for the World Bank, the OECD, the International Monetary Fund, and the Harvard Law School International Tax Program. She is the author of A Good Tax (2016), and Legal Issues in Property Valuation and Taxation: Cases and Materials (2006), a co-author of State and Local Taxation: Cases and Materials (10th edition 2014), and co-editor of the books Erosion of the Property Tax Base (2009), Making the Property Tax Work – Experiences in Developing and Transitional Countries (2008), and The Development of Property Taxation in Economies in Transition: Case Studies from Central and Eastern Europe (2001).

Daphne A. Kenyon, PhD, Fellow

Daphne A. Kenyon, Ph.D. is an economist who serves as a fellow at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy where she authored several reports, including The Property Tax-School Funding Dilemma, Payments in Lieu of Taxes (co-authored with Adam Langley), and Rethinking Property Tax Incentives for Business (co-authored with Adam Langley and Bethany Paquin) and was co-editor (with Gregory Ingram) of Education, Land and Location. She is currently finalizing the State-by-State Property Tax at a Glance narratives, which provide a short explanation of the key features of the property tax in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. These narratives are part of the Lincoln Institute’s online database Significant Features of the Property Tax. Kenyon’s prior positions include principal of D.A. Kenyon & Associates, a public finance consulting firm; president of the Josiah Bartlett Center for Public Policy, a New Hampshire think tank; professor and chair of the Economics Department at Simmons College; senior economist with the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the Urban Institute; and assistant professor at Dartmouth College. She served on the New Hampshire State Board of Education and as a New Hampshire representative to the Education Commission of the States. Kenyon earned her B.A. in Economics from Michigan State University and her M.A. and Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Michigan.

Adam H. Langley, Senior Research Analyst

Adam H. Langley is senior research analyst for the Department of Valuation and Taxation at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. His research has focused on property tax relief programs, nonprofit payments in lieu of taxes, and other issues related to state and local public finance. He has co-authored three Lincoln Institute policy focus reports including Property Tax Circuit Breakers: Fair and Cost-Effective Relief for Taxpayers (2009), Payments in Lieu of Taxes: Balancing Municipal and Nonprofit Interests (2010), and Rethinking Property Tax Incentives for Business (2012). He previously worked in the New York State Assembly. Adam earned his B.A. in political studies from Bard College and his M.A. in economics from Boston University.

James N. Levitt, Program Manager, Land Conservation Programs

Jim Levitt is the manager of land conservation programs in the Department of Planning and Urban Form at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, and director of the program on conservation innovation at the Harvard Forest, Harvard University, in Petersham, Massachusetts. In addition, he holds ongoing fellowships at the Harvard Kennedy School and at Highstead, a non-profit organization advancing land conservation in New England. Levitt focuses on landmark innovations in the field of land and biodiversity conservation (both present-day and historic) that are characterized by five traits: novelty and creativity in conception; strategic significance; measurable effectiveness; international transferability; and the ability to endure. Levitt has written and edited dozens of articles and four books on land and biodiversity conservation. He has lectured widely on the topic in venues ranging from Santiago, Chile, to Beijing, China, and Stockholm, Sweden. Among his current efforts, Levitt plays an instrumental role in the effort to organize the International Land Conservation Network (ILCN), whose mission is to connect organizations around the world that are accelerating voluntary private and civic sector action to protect and steward land and water resources. Levitt is a graduate of Yale College and the Yale School of Management (Yale SOM). He was recently named a Donaldson Fellow by Yale SOM for career achievements that “exemplify the mission of the School.”

Peter Pollock, FAICP, Manager of Western Programs

Peter Pollock, FAICP, is the Manager of Western Programs at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Since July 2006 he has been working with the Department of Planning and Urban Form to manage the Institute’s joint programs with the Sonoran Institute and the Center for Natural Resources and Environmental Policy at the University of Montana. He worked for almost 25 years for the City of Boulder, Colorado as both a current and long-range planner, and he served as director of the city’s Planning Department from 1999 to 2006. Pollock began his career as the staff urban planner for the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, Colorado, where he specialized in solar access protection, energy-conserving land use planning, and outreach to local communities. During the 1997–1998 academic year Pollock was a Loeb Fellow at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design and a visiting fellow at the Lincoln Institute. He received his master’s degree in Landscape Architecture at the University of California at Berkeley in 1978 and his bachelor’s degree in Environmental Planning at the University of California at Santa Cruz in 1976.

Andrew Reschovsky, Fellow

Andrew Reschovsky is a Research Fellow in Taxation at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy and a Professor Emeritus of Public Affairs and Applied Economics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He has published widely on topics related to state and local government finance. His current research focuses on the financing of large American central cities, the measurement of municipal fiscal health in China, and the role of the property tax in the funding of public education in the U.S. He has served as an advisor to the South African Financial and Fiscal Commission and the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development in Paris. In 2011, he was awarded the Steven D. Gold award by the Association of Public Policy Analysis and Management in recognition of his contributions to state and local fiscal policy. He earned a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania.

Amy Cotter, Manager, Urban Development Programs

Amy grew up with a corn field in her backyard and the city in her blood. Three commonwealths, two countries, one state, several degrees and 20 years later, she works with metropolitan areas to improve both city and country and to help them coexist more harmoniously. She joined the Lincoln Institute in November 2015 in the new position of Manager of Urban Development Programs, working with the Planning and Urban Form department. Previously she spent thirteen years with the Metropolitan Area Planning Council in Boston. There, she was a director responsible for development and strategic initiatives to implement MetroFuture, the region’s smart growth development plan, including its Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant and MAPC's work as a member of the MA Smart Growth Alliance. Amy has a BA from Tufts University and Masters in both urban and regional planning, and environmental science from the University of Michigan.

Enrique SilvaFellow and Associate Director

Enrique R. Silva is a Fellow and the Associate Director for the Program on Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. He oversees the LAC research portfolio and its relationship with the larger educational and policy initiatives of the LAC program and Institute. Silva supervises research that includes: land-based fiscal instruments; the fiscal and land policy dimensions of large-scale urban projects; affordable housing and urban segregation; planning regimes; and climate change adaptation. Prior to his arrival at the Lincoln Institute, Silva was an assistant professor of city planning and urban affairs and the program coordinator for the graduate programs in city planning and urban affairs at Boston University. Silva is an expert in comparative urbanization, metropolitan governance, and the institutionalization of planning practices in the Americas. He has also been involved in efforts to promote the development of urban growth management and planning institutions in post-earthquake Haiti. He has published several articles on the political and institutional dimensions of Chile’s infrastructure concessions program and is currently writing several pieces on the politics of post-earthquake urban planning in Haiti. Prior to his doctoral studies in city and regional planning, Silva worked as a planner and environmental development consultant in the greater Boston area and was the program assistant for the Democratic Governance Program for the Ford Foundation’s Santiago, Chile, office. Silva holds a Ph.D. in city and regional planning from the University of California, Berkeley, a master of science in planning from the University of Toronto, and a bachelor of arts in political science from Columbia University.