Gregory K. Ingram
President & CEO
Gregory K. Ingram is President and CEO of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Before leading the institute beginning in June 2005, he was Director-General, Operations Evaluation at the World Bank, where he also held positions in urban development and research and was Staff Director for the World Development Report 1994, Infrastructure for Development. His areas of expertise include urban economics, housing markets, transportation, infrastructure, evaluation, and economic development. Prior to joining the World Bank, he was Associate Professor of Economics at Harvard University. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University; a B.A. and M.A. in philosophy, politics, and economics from Oxford University; and a B.S. in civil engineering from Swarthmore College.
Chair, Department of Planning and Urban Form
Armando Carbonell, Senior Fellow and Chairman of the Department of Planning and Urban Form, is an urban planner. His areas of expertise include city and regional planning, property rights and regulation, and land use and the environment. He also teaches planning at Harvard University and the University of Pennsylvania. Prior to his appointment to the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Carbonell was the founding Executive Director of the Cape Cod Commission, a regional planning and land use regulatory agency. He is a member of the American Institute of Certified Planners. Carbonell received his A.B. degree from Clark University and was a Doctoral Fellow at the Johns Hopkins University and a Loeb Fellow at Harvard University.
Martim O. Smolka
Director, Program on Latin America and the Caribbean
Martim O. Smolka, senior fellow, director of the Program on Latin America and the Caribbean, and co-chairman of the International Department at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, is an economist. His areas of expertise include land markets and land policy, access to land by the urban poor, the structuring of property markets in Latin America and property tax systems, including the use of land value increment tax to finance urban development and infrastructure. A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania (MA/PhD), he is co-founder and former president of the Brazilian National Association for Research and Graduate Studies on Urban and Regional Planning.
Chair, Department of Valuation and Taxation
Joan Youngman is a senior fellow at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where she chairs its department of valuation and taxation. Her areas of expertise includes property taxation, valuation, tax limitation measures, and local taxation. An attorney with extensive experience in U.S. and international property tax issues, she is the author of the Lincoln Institute book Legal Issues in Property Valuation and Taxation (2006), and a contributing author on property tax issues for a leading legal text, Hellerstein and Hellerstein, State and Local Taxation (8th ed. 2005). She is also author of many articles on taxation, coauthor of An International Survey of Taxes on Land and Buildings (Kluwer, 1994), and a contributor on property tax issues to State Tax Notes. She has participated in international missions for the International Monetary Fund and for USAID involving legislative drafting and advice on land and building taxation.
Director, Program on the People's Republic of China
Zhi Liu, a specialist in urban infrastructure and its financing, is director of the China program at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy and of the Peking University – Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy in Beijing, China. Previously as an infrastructure specialist at the World Bank, he had operational experience in East Asia, South Asia, and Latin America, where he managed economic sector studies and investment lending projects in the infrastructure and urban sectors. In 1993-94, he was a research associate with the Harvard Institute for International Development and in 1985-87 he taught city and regional planning as a faculty member at Nanjing University. He has authored and co-authored a number of academic papers and World Bank reports on topics including metropolitan infrastructure financing, low-carbon city development, sustainable urban transport, motorization, and poverty and transport. He holds a B.S. from Zhongshan University, an M.S. from Nanjing University, and a Ph.D. from Harvard University. In 2010, he served as vice chair of the Global Agenda Council for the Future of Transportation, World Economic Forum.
Daphne E. Kenyon
Visiting Fellow, Department of Valuation and Taxation
Daphne A. Kenyon, Ph.D. is an economist who is a visiting fellow at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy and principal of D. A. Kenyon & Associates. Prior to founding her own consulting firm, Kenyon served as professor and chair in the Economics Department at Simmons College; senior economist at the U.S. Department of the Treasury and the Urban Institute; and assistant professor at Dartmouth College. Her areas of expertise are school funding and the property tax, homeowner property tax relief, payments in lieu of taxes by nonprofits (PILOTs), and property tax incentives for business. Kenyon earned her B.A. in economics from Michigan State University and her M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan.
James N. Levitt
Fellow, Department of Planning and Urban Form
Jim Levitt is a Fellow in the Department of Planning and Urban Form at the Lincoln Institute. His area of expertise is innovation in the field of land and biodiversity conservation, including innovation in conservation finance, large landscape conservation, and the development of voluntary land conservation movements in the United States and around the globe. He also serves as Director of the Program on Conservation Innovation at the Harvard Forest, Harvard University. Prior to his appointment to the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Levitt was a Taubman Center fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School. Earlier, he was a management consultant serving Fortune 25-scale clients and national governments. He is a graduate of Yale College and the Yale School of Management (SOM), and was recently named a Donaldson Fellow by Yale SOM for career achievements that “exemplify the mission of the school.”
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Director of Public Affairs
Lincoln Institute of Land Policy